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About Magnesite





About Magnesite



Natural Status of Magnesite

Commodity Category

Nonmetal minerals

Crystal Structure and Form Trigonal crystal system, shows itself in rhombohedron, often presents dense granular aggregate.
Chemical Composition and Property Essential constituent is magnesium carbonateMgCO3, among which MgO takes up 47.81%,CO2 takes 52.19in the chemical constitution. There are often some impurities of oxide compounds such as those of iron, manganese, calcium, silicon etc.

Magnesite shrinks and CO2 is decomposed out when heated to about 640C; it becomes caustic calcined magnesite of loosening lumps of light yellow or white color when heated to 700-1,000C, which is of very strong adhesivity; it is completely decomposed when heated to 1,400-1,800C and forms periclase, becoming dead burned magnesite of dark brown color that is of very high refractoriness; it becomes fused magnesite of white or light brown color when melted to 2,500-3,000C in electric arc furnace, which is of much higher refractoriness and electrical insulating property.

Physical Property  It is of white or light yellow-white or off-white color, sometimes bearing red tone while ceramic magnesite of snow-white color; some variants feel sticky;  with glass glance; hardness is 4-4.5; friable; specific gravity is 2.9-3.1, bigger when containing iron; showing achromatic color under microscope transmitting light; of very high refractoriness and  binding property.
Category 1.Macrocrystalline (coarse crystalline) natural magnesite: belonging to rich-iron and less-rich-in-iron magnesite, produce mainly in China, North Korea, Russia, Czech, Brazil, Spain, and Australia.
2.Cryptocrystalline natural magnesite: belonging to low-iron magnesite, produce mainly in Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia but resources are on the verge of exhaustion.

The magnesite being produced in Liaoning, China is less-rich-in-iron macrocrystalline natural magnesite featured by enormous deposit, high grade of tenor (MgO≥46% takes up 40%), low cost of exploitation.
Main Applications Magnesite is one of feed minerals for making magnesium as well as refractory for manufacturing refractory bricks, linings of steel-making furnace and the like. Besides, it is widely used in building, chemical, rubber and other industrial fields such as for making magnesite cement, for buildings of heat preservation, heat shielding, sound insulating, and so on. In chemical industry, as mordant, desiccant, dissolution agent, decolorizing agent, neutralizing agent, absorbent. In addition, it is also widely used in the manufacture of artificial fiber, fertilizer, plastic, and cosmetic.
Classification and Definition for Magnesia, Magnesite Goods, Magnesite Finished Products and Magnesite-based Chemicals*
Magnesia Dead burned magnesite and fused magnesite through processes of sintering or melting of magnesite, dolomite or magnesium oxide extracted from serpentine, brucite, sea water, or brine are so called as magnesia. Nowadays in China, magnesia is produced directly from natural magnesite with very low cost while in some other countries it is made from sea water or brine with higher purity but also higher cost.
Magnesite Goods and their Commodity Names, HS Codes Magnesite - 25191000, Fused magnesite  - 25199010, Dead burned magnesite - 25199020, Caustic calcined magnesite- 25199030, Gunning material - 25199020(only corresponding to those of MgO≥70%). 

Above commodities are now generally designated as magnesite goods and among the lists of commodities of export license control in China.

Magnesite Finished Products Finished products processed from above mentioned magnesite goods and mainly used in refractory field such as various magnesia-based bricks, caustic calcined magnesite ball/briquette and gunning materials etc. that contain MgO<70%.
Magnesite-based Chemicals Those chemically made of magnesite such as magnesium oxide, lightweight magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium sulphate, magnesium carbonate, and magnesium fertilizer.
Status of Production and Consumption of Magnesite Goods**
World Status of Production and Consumption
Reserves and Geographic Distribution There are about 3.5 billion tons of natural magnesite reserve in the world mainly distributed in China, Russia, North Korea, Brazil, Australia, Turkey, Greece, India, and USA.
Output and Distribution The world's annual output including calcined magnesite, dead burned magnesite and fused magnesite is about 7 million tons, mainly from countries of China, North Korea, Turkey, India, Russia, Australia, Greece, Spain, Yugoslavia, Czech, Brazil, Austria etc.
Main Consuming Country or Region USA, Europe, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, China Taiwan etc.
Status of Production and Export in China
Reserves and Geographic Distribution 1 billion tons of raw magnesite reserves, mainly in Liaoning province, a small amount in  Shandong province, Sichuan province and Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region.
Output and Distribution 4 million tons of annual output including calcined magnesite, dead burned magnesite and fused magnesite, mostly centralizing in Liaoning province, small amount of calcined magnesite from Shandong province.
Principal Producing Technique and Process Mainly firing coal or coke in shaft kilns or firing heavy oil in rotary kilns for making calcined magnesite and dead burned magnesite; melting fused magnesite in electric arc furnaces.  
Export Variety, Quantity and Makeup About 1.6 million tons, including 400,000 tons of  calcined magnesite, 1 million tons of dead burned magnesite, 200,000 tons of fused magnesite, and some magnesia gunning materials.
Past Years Export Quantity and Amount Year 2007: 1.5278 mil. tons, 298 mil. US Dollars;
2008: 1.2978 mil. tons, 446 mil. US Dollars;
Export Management in China
Administrative Authority for Production and its Control Measures A tax named as magnesite resources protection at rate of RMB190 per metric ton (about USD30/MT) is imposed by the Liaoning Provincial Industrial Special Resources Protection Office of of China.
Administrative Authority for Exportation and its Control Measures Magnesite Goods are commodities in the list of export license control. Export administrative authority is the Ministry of Commerce of China; coordinating organization is the China Chamber of Commerce of Metals, Minerals & Chemicals Importers & Exporters (shorted as CCCMC).
Coordinating Organization for Export and its Measures The magnesite branch of the CCCMC is the trade organization giving information, offering coordination and guidance to the Chinese magnesite goods exporters. Self-discipline and self-coordinating on business are being conducted within members themselves.

 * The category and definition only represent opinions of this site.
** The main contents of this column are cited from the CCCMC relevant information,  parts of them were modified by this site.


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